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Diplomacy – İngilizce ileri düzey okuma parçası (advanced reading)

It is thus essential, at the outset of this study, to define what the word ‘diplomacy’ really means and in what sense, or senses, it will be used in the pages that follow.
In current language this word ‘diplomacy’ is carelessly taken to denote several quite different things. At one moment it is employed as a synonym for ‘foreign policy’, as when we say ‘British diplomacy in the Near East has been lacking in vigour’. At another moment it signifies ‘negotiation’, as when we say ‘the problem is one which might well be solved by diplomacy’. More specifically, the word denotes the processes and machinery by which such negotiation is carried out. A fourth meaning is that of a branch of the Foreign Service, as when one says ‘my nephew is working for diplomacy’. And a fifth interpretation which this unfortunate word is made to carry is that of an abstract quality or gift, which, in its best sense, implies skill in the conduct of international negotiation; and, in its worst sense, implies the more guileful aspects of tact.

These five interpretations are, in English-speaking countries, used indiscriminately, with the result that there are few branches of politics which have been exposed to such confusion of thought. If, for instance, the word ‘army’ were used to mean the exercise of power, the art of strategy, the science of tactics, the profession of a soldier and the combative instincts of man – we should expect public discussion on military matters to lead to much misunderstanding.

The purpose of this monograph is to describe, in simple but precise terms, what diplomacy is and what it is not. In the first two chapters a short sketch will be given of the origins and evolution of diplomatic practice and theory. The purpose of this historical review will be to show that diplomacy is neither the invention nor the pastime of some particular political system, but is an essential element in any reasonable relation between man and man and between nation and nation. An examination will follow of recent modifications in diplomatic methods, with special reference to the problems of ‘open’ and ‘secret’ diplomacy and to the difficulty of combining efficient diplomacy with democratic control. Other sections will deal with the actual functioning of modern diplomacy, with the relation between diplomacy and commerce, with the organization and administration of the Foreign Service, with diplomacy by Conference and with the League of Nations as an instrument of negotiation. At the end a reasoned catalogue will be given of current diplomatic phrases such as may assist the student in understanding the technical language (it is something more than mere jargon) which diplomacy has evolved.

Yet before embarking upon so wide a field of examination, it is, as has been said, necessary to define in what sense, or senses, the word ‘diplomacy’ will be used in this study. I propose to employ the definition given by the Oxford English Dictionary. It is as follows:

‘Diplomacy is the management of international relations by negotiation; the method by which these relations are adjusted and managed by ambassadors and envoys; the business or art of the diplomatist’.

By taking this precise, although wide, definition as my terms of reference I hope to avoid straying, on the one hand into the sands of foreign policy, and on the other into the marshes of international law. I shall discuss the several policies or systems of the different nations only in so far as they affect the methods by which, and the standards according to which, such policies are carried out. I shall mention international law only in so far as it advances diplomatic theory or affects the privileges, immunities, and actions of diplomatic envoys. And I shall thus hope to be able to concentrate upon the ‘executive’ rather than upon the ‘legislative’ aspects of the problem.

(From Diplomacy by Harold Nicholson)

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